The limitations of battery selection largely depend on the development and commercial conditions of the battery itself. The world's first batteries, the Volt stack, were made of zinc and tin plates. Then came zinc and copper batteries, wet and dry batteries, which were not missing and easy to carry. Dry batteries were widely used for a long time and were replaced by rechargeable ferronickel batteries invented by Edison. Ultimately, lithium cobalt oxide as cathode material and lithium metal as cathode material have become the last choice in the market.
Compared with other batteries, lithium batteries have obvious advantages. Its service life is very long, more than six years, and the battery volume is small, high energy density, can reach 460-600Wh/kg, is lead-acid battery 6-7 times. At present, Tesla announced that the energy density of the 21700 battery system jointly developed by Matsushita reached 300Wh / kg. At the same time, aluminum batteries have high power endurance, lithium iron phosphate lithium ion batteries for new energy vehicles can achieve 15-30C charging and discharging capacity, which is convenient for high-strength automotive start-up and acceleration. Lithium batteries have the characteristics of high and low temperature adaptability, green environment protection, and basically no water consumption in the production process.
However, the commercial application of batteries is limited by many factors, such as volume weight, energy storage and release capacity, storage time, service life, cost, ease of use, mass production and so on. In view of these two reasons, lithium battery has become the best solution.
Although the properties of lithium batteries themselves determine their fate as "flammable and explosive", it is not entirely impossible to reduce the risk and safety. Whether mobile phone companies or new energy vehicle companies, through a reasonable battery management system and thermal management system, the battery can ensure safety, without explosion or spontaneous combustion.
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