In the tests conducted by the AA, an electric vehicle has a mileage of 105 miles (about 169 kilometers) at 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees C), and it falls to 43 miles (69 kilometers) when it reaches 20 degrees Fahrenheit. The drop is as high as 60%. The battery has some similarities with humans. When the climate turns cold, it will be less active. Lead-acid batteries, lithium batteries and fuel cells will be affected by low temperature.
Taking the lithium iron phosphate battery as the most commonly used electric bus as an example, the battery has high safety and long lifetime, but the low temperature performance is slightly worse than that of other technology systems. Low temperature has influence on the positive and negative electrode, electrolyte and adhesive of lithium iron phosphate. For example, lithium iron phosphate cathode itself electronic conductivity is poor, easy to produce polarization in low temperature environment, thereby reducing the battery capacity; affected by low temperature, graphite intercalation rate, easy in the anode surface precipitation of lithium metal, if the charging time and put into use after use, not all metal lithium intercalated graphite again inside, metal parts lithium persists negative surface, most likely to form lithium dendrite, affect the safety of the cell; low temperature electrolyte viscosity will increase, lithium ion transfer impedance increases; in addition, in the production process of lithium iron phosphate adhesive, which is also the key factor for the performance of low temperature adhesive will produce great influence.
It is also the lithium battery, and the lithium titanate battery has excellent low temperature resistance. The lithium titanate anode material with spinel structure has a potential of about 1.5V and does not form a lithium dendrite. The volume strain of the lithium titanate is less than 1% during the charge discharge process. The nanoscale lithium titanate battery can charge and discharge large current, realize the fast charging at low temperature and ensure the durability and safety of the battery. For example, the main new energy of the lithium titanate battery is silsilon, and its product has the normal charge and discharge capacity at -50-60 C.
Although lithium-ion battery with graphite negative electrode can discharge at -40 C, it is more difficult to achieve conventional current charging at -20 C and lower temperature. This is also a field that is actively exploring in the industry
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