Lithium iron phosphate battery
Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) battery is a kind of lithium ion battery with LiFePO4 as cathode material.
Advantages: the stability is the best among the current automotive lithium batteries.
Disadvantages: there is still a big gap in energy density compared with ternary lithium battery and lithium cobalt oxide battery.
In addition, when the temperature is lower than - 5 ℃, the charging efficiency decreases. And when the temperature is too low, the capacitance of the battery will be affected.
The application models of LiFePO4 battery are not suitable for driving in the north, especially in the extremely cold areas such as northeast China, because the temperature there is too low in winter, which will affect the service life of LiFePO4 battery.
Ternary lithium battery
Ternary lithium battery is a kind of lithium battery whose cathode material is lithium nickel cobalt manganese ternary cathode material.
Advantages: compared with lithium cobalt oxide battery, ternary lithium battery has higher safety.
It is more suitable for the development trend of new energy vehicle battery in the future, suitable for Northern weather, and the battery is more stable at low temperature.
Disadvantages: the voltage is too low, and the energy density is between lithium iron phosphate battery and lithium cobalt oxide battery.
Nickel cadmium battery
Advantages: fast charging, long cycle life, more than twice as much as lead-acid battery, more than 2000 times, but the price is 4-5 times of lead-acid battery.
Although its initial purchase cost is high, its long-term actual use cost is not high due to its advantages in energy and service life.
Disadvantage: it has "memory effect", which is easy to reduce the available capacity of battery due to poor charge and discharge. A complete charge and discharge should be made after ten times of use.
If the "memory effect" has already occurred, it should be fully charged and discharged 3-5 times continuously to release the memory.
In addition, cadmium is toxic, and attention should be paid to recycling work in order to avoid environmental pollution caused by cadmium.
Sodium sulfur battery
Advantages: first, higher specific energy. It is 3-4 times as much as that of lead-acid battery; second, it can discharge with large current and high power. Third, the charge discharge efficiency is high.
Due to the use of solid electrolyte, there is no self discharge and side reaction of secondary battery with liquid electrolyte, and the charge discharge current efficiency is almost 100%.
Disadvantages: the main working temperature is between 300 ℃ and 350 ℃. Therefore, the battery needs certain heating and heat preservation.
However, the high temperature corrosion is serious and the battery life is short. The existing high-performance vacuum insulation technology can effectively solve this problem.
There are also some problems such as poor performance stability and safety.
Ni MH battery
Advantages: Ni MH battery belongs to alkaline battery, Ni MH battery has long cycle life and no memory effect.
Disadvantage: high price. Due to the high price, there is no mass production at present.